Scientific Testing

We perform laboratory tests on environmental pollution with radioactive isotopes, contanmination levels in humans and genetic changes.

   Research Collaborations

We collaborate internationally with various research institutions.



     Scientific Publications

All our research findings are presented at international peer reviewed scientific conferences and published in science journals.

Latest Research Publications and Conference Presentations

Crisis Management Performance of Countries during Covid-19

An Intercultural Comparison and Key Cultural Dimensions in view of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Education


Klimaschewski, Frank; Campkin, Fiona

24th Nuclear Medical Defence Conference (ConRad), Munich, Germany, 05 2021.


The Quantitative Analysis of Uranium Isotopes in the Urine of an Ammunition Clean-up Worker deployed on Dutch North Sea Islands

Klimaschewski, Frank

European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), Barcelona, Spain, 12.-16.10.2019.



The military training sites on the Dutch Islands Vlieland and Terschelling in the North Sea are used for military target practice including uranium weapons. Civilians are employed on those islands to collect projectiles, debris and remove tank wrecks. 


One subject involved in the clean-up reported severe multiple health problems (i.e. general weakness, problems with lung function and blood cells/leukemia) after approximately two weeks of work on the testing sites. 


A 24-hour urine analysis with ICP-MS were performed by Jülich laboratory four years after exposure to determine the concentration and precise isotopic composition of three uranium isotopes (234U, 235U, 238U) in the urine specimen. 

The analysis measured a 234U concentration of 5.6E-04 ng/l (1.3E-4 Bq/l) and a 238U concentration of 1.13E+01 ng/l (1.4E-4 Bq/l).) The 238U/234U ratio was 17 417, normally indicative of natural uranium. 235U reported as non-detectable indicates a rather unusual result inconsistent with other population studies.


The total uranium concentration measured in urine of the subject years after exposure is below the mean concentration of uranium urine excretion in Germany (21.5 ng/d ± 19.4 SD). However, this does not rule out the possibility of an initial contamination of the lung with uranium from uranium containing weapon systems at time zero that exceed permitted levels since uranium might have been metabolised several years after inhalation. Further research especially into the environmental contamination is warranted.


Feature: A Time Lapse Map of Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

Emergency Readiness in the Current Nuclear Age - An Educational Challenge

Klimaschewski, Frank; Campkin, Fiona

23rd Nuclear Medical Defence Conference (ConRad), Munich, Germany, 05 2019.


Emergency Readiness in the local Community – Developing a Learning Civilian Preparedness Network to Increase the Efficacy of Interagency Disaster Responses

Klimaschewski, Frank (invited speaker)

World CBRN & Medical Congress (CEBIRAM), Prague, Czech Republic, 17.-19.10.2018.


Community Resilience - Creating linear-reflective Emergency Preparedness Structures to Increase Adaptive Response Capabilities for Radiological/Nuclear Disasters

Klimaschewski, Frank

World Congress on CBRNe Science and Consequence Management (CSCM), Cavtat, Croatia, 03.-06.09.2018.


Forensic Analysis of Inhaled Radioactive Dust in Human Lung Tissue – Quantitative Analysis and Geometric Topology of Isotopes with Micro CT, Electron Microscopy and LA-ICP-MS - A Comparative Methodology Report

Klimaschewski, Frank; Duraković, Asaf

World Congress on CBRNe Science and Consequence Management (CSCM), Cavtat, Croatia, 03.-06.09.2018.

The Scientific Legacy of Dr. Asaf Durakovic - An Anthology of Key Advances and Publications on the Medical Effects of Depleted Uranium, Ionizing Radiation, and Internal Contamination with Actinides

Duraković, Asaf (author), Bell, D.E., and Bell, M. (editors)

(WLIPH), Medina, NY, USA 2018. 

Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb"

Duraković, Asaf

US Journal of Military Medicine, 182, April, 2017.



The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular uranium and transuranic elements. The spread of radioactive materials in the area of the impact would expose both military and civilian personnel to the blast and dust with both inhalational, somatic, and gastrointestinal exposure, in the aftermath of the deployment of RDDs. The quantities of radioactive materials have proliferated from the original quantity of plutonium first isolated in 1941 from 0.5 mg to the current tens of thousands of kilograms in the strategic nuclear arsenal with the obvious potential consequences to the biosphere and mankind. In an event of RDD employment, the immediate goal of disaster and mass casualty medicine would be a synchronized effort to contain the scope of the event, followed by cleanup and treatment procedures. A pragmatic approach to this problem is not always possible because of unpredictability of the terrorist-use scenarios.

Developing a Methodology to Assess Human Lung Failure due to Uranium Dust Contamination - A Progress Report

Klimaschewski, Frank1; Duraković, Asaf2, G. Tromba3, S. Pacilѐ3, D. Dreossi3 , C. Dullin4

(1) Uranium Medical Research Institute, London, UNITED KINGDOM, (2) UMRC, Washington, DC, UNITED STATES, (3) Elettra Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Trieste, ITALY, (4) Dept. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, GERMANY. 

22nd Nuclear Medical Defence Conference (ConRad),

Munich, Germany, 05 2017.

Developing a Methodology to Assess Human Lung Failure due to Uranium Dust Contamination - A Progress Report
Adobe Acrobat document [12.1 MB]

Clinical Observation, Genomic Bioindication, and Medicolegal Interests in Assessment of Chronic Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation in the US FUSRAP Madison Site of the St. Louis District

Duraković, Asaf; Bell, D. E.


22nd Nuclear Medical Defence Conference (ConRad),

Munich, Germany, 05 2017.

The European Union`s Missing Strategy for Civilian Nuclear/Radiological Emergency Preparedness for Mass Casualties

Klimaschewski, Frank,  22nd Nuclear Medical Defence Conference (ConRad),

Munich, Germany, 05 2017.

Spectrometric Isotope Analysis of Urine and Whole Body of a Child from Tokyo after Exposure to the Radioactive Outfall from Fukushima – A Case Study

Klimaschewski, Frank,  22nd Nuclear Medical Defence Conference (ConRad),

Munich, Germany, 05 2017.

Spectrometric Isotope Analysis of Urine and Whole Body of a Child from Tokyo after Exposure to the Radioactive Outfall from Fukushima – A Case Study
2017 ConRad Spectrometric Isotope Analys[...]
Adobe Acrobat document [12.5 MB]

Depleted Uranium on Radioactive Battlefields - The Risk of Proliferation of Nuclear Materials for Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs)
Duraković, Asaf; Klimaschewski, Frank
AMSUS Military Medicine Conference - Federal Health 2016, Washington, USA, 29.11. - 02.12.2016

Adobe Acrobat document [2.7 MB]


Journal Article  06/2016

Asaf Duraković

The Specter of Plutonium in Modern Warfare

2016; 3: e1359                                                                                             

JournalStem Cell and Translational Investigation                              




The current global reality of re-emerging of the Cold War, migration of the large segments of the global population, depletion of natural resources, and the ever-increasing need for alternate energy presents existential challenges to geopolitical unresolved crisis, and ultimately, stability of the biosphere. While the strategic nuclear confrontation is an unlikely scenario because of its irreversible consequences, tactical warfare is a realistic probability of the outcomes of regional and geopolitical differences around the globe. The fragile and limited scope of the stratosphere, including the airspace and waters, provides ever-decreasing probabilities of expansion, limited options for sustainable life, and increasing risk to the survival of the environment. The industrial pollution is enhanced by the nuclear age radioactive environment, which is irreversible in light of man-made insults to the biosphere by the nuclear-era civilian and military release of man-made imbalance. Non-proliferation nuclear treaties, to which not all countries are signatories, do not provide a prospect of security for mankind in the current polarized geopolitical realities, enhanced by clandestine use of nuclear-era destructive powers and by settling regional differences in the confrontational rather than compromising manor. Current realities of the instabilities of the Middle and Far East, large segments of Euro-Asia, shifting of the military priorities, and unceasing production of the nuclear arsenals appear a challenge not only to the well-being, but to sustainable homeostasis. Radiation dispersal devices, nuclear terrorism, renewable energy challenges, chemical and radioactive pollution, melting of the polar caps, and global warming present existential challenges to this fragile segment of the galaxy. The advent of transuranic elements, exemplified by plutonium, adds a recent relatively new dimension to the challenges facing the biosphere. This article attempts to objectively assess the role of radioactive pollution by actinides in the current global reality.                                                                                       

DOI  10.14800/scti.1359.

   [Complete Article Online] []


Adobe Acrobat document [107.8 KB]


Chromosomal Aberrations in Veterans and Civilian Populations as Bioindicators of Genotoxicity of Actinides

Duraković, Asaf; Klimaschewski, Frank, World Congress on CBRNe Science and Consequence Management (CSCM), Tbilisi, Georgia, 

05/06 2016.


Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism - The Urgent Need to Develop a Simple and Effective Civilian Resilience Strategy for Urban Scenarios

Klimaschewski, Frank, World Congress on CBRNe Science and Consequence Management (CSCM), Tbilisi, Georgia, 

05/06 2016.


Depleted Uranium on Radioactive Battlefields - The Legacy that can Lead to the Uncontrolled Proliferation of Nuclear/Radiological Materials for the RDD Terrorist Scenario

Klimaschewski, Frank, World Congress on CBRNe Science and Consequence Management (CSCM), Tbilisi, Georgia, 

05/06 2016.


Journal Article  03/2016


Asaf Duraković


Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare

Journal: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 1-7



The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium’s somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.


DOI  10.1007/s12199-016-0524-4

[ Complete Article Online ]

A Durakovic 03 2016 - Medical effects of[...]
Adobe Acrobat document [394.7 KB]


Genetic Aberration Studies in Veterans and Family Members after Exposure to Radioactive Dust from Uranium Containing Weapons used during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Iraq and Enduring Freedom (EF), Afghanistan
Duraković, Asaf; Klimaschewski, Frank
21st Nuclear Medical Defence Conference, ConRad, Munich, Germany, May 2015.


Radioactive Warfare  - New Illnesses and Genetic Aberrations after the Dispersion of Uranium and Transuranice Isotopes during Gulf War I, Gulf War II, Afganistan, Gaza, the Balkan and current Wars
Duraković, Asaf; CSCM Conference, Zagreb, Croatia 04 2015.


Quantitative Measurements of Uranium Isotope 236U in War Zones of Afghanistan,
Duraković, Asaf; Klimaschewski, Frank; Weyman, Tedd; Zimmerman, Isaac
European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), Gothenburg, Sweden, October 18.-22., 2014.


Uranium Isotopes Induced Alterations in the Human Genetic Pool as the First Indicator of Contamination after Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), Gulf War II and Enduring Freedom (OEF)
Duraković, Asaf; Klimaschewski, Frank; Weyman, Tedd; Zimmerman, Isaac,
European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), Gothenburg, Sweden, October 18.-22., 2014.


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